From the article:
Fossil fuels play a critical role in today’s economy and are critical in future global economic development and prosperity. The rise of unconventional resources in recent years has contributed to the growth of petroleum and natural gas production (Figure 1), but at the same time it has also increased their energy intensity. From extraction to refining, the oil and gas industry requires significant energy expenses (approximately a quarter of the energy contained in a barrel of oil is used to produce, refine and transport it). Adding to the mix high price volatility and a constant increase of environmental regulations, demand for technologies that can improve economic performance while reducing emissions is at an all time high. The oil and gas industry is now facing significant pressure to increase energy security by implementing energy efficiency and conservation measures, while reducing their overall environmental impact.